# Mathematics

### Hadamard Matrices, Secret Codes and Quantum Teleportation Schemes

We will start the course with a rigorous introduction to logic and proof writing. Various types of proofs will be presented: direct proofs, non-constructive proofs, proofs by contradiction and proofs by induction. We will also review some important number theory results, involving prime numbers and modular arithmetic.

We will then discuss matrix theory. In mathematics, a matrix is a rectangular table of numbers arranged in rows and columns. Matrices can be added and multiplied, just like numbers. However, matrices can also behave very differently from numbers. For instance, matrices do not commute when multiplied, meaning that A times B may not equal B times A. We will study matrices and their applications to computer graphics, the ranking of web pages in search engines, and quantum mechanics.

In the last part of the course we will focus on a special class of matrices called Hadamard matrices. These are matrices having n rows and n columns and all entries equal to 1 or -1, such that each two distinct rows agree on exactly half positions (and disagree on the other half). It is easy to draw them by representing the 1 entries as white squares, and the -1 entries as a black squares. Here are some examples of Hadamard matrices:

The definition of a Hadamard matrix is deceptively simple, but it is not known for which n’s such matrices exist. The famous Hadamard conjecture asserts that for every integer n divisible by 4 there exists a Hadamard matrix of size n, but nobody has managed to prove this 150-year old conjecture.

We will use our number theory and matrix knowledge to investigate different ways to construct Hadamard matrices. We will also present applications to coding theory, acoustics, and quantum teleportation.

#### Course Requirements

The criteria for assigning grades for the course are the following:

• completion of weekly homework
• class participation, including board work
• preparation of a poster/presentation (team-based)

Passing grade for the course: C

#### Course Instructors

Remus Nicoara, Course Director

Dr. Remus Nicoara earned his Ph.D. in Mathematics from UCLA, and his Bachelor’s Degree from the University of Bucharest, Romania. He is currently an Associate Professor of Mathematics and Director of the Math Honors Program at the University of Tennessee. His main research interest lies in von Neumann algebras, which are algebras of operators that model quantum mechanical systems. Outside of work, Remus likes to hike, bike and garden while thinking about math. He enjoys meditation, Sci-Fi books, and Hanayama puzzles. He is also an avid gamer and he currently teaches a class about video games and math, called Math Effect.

Mike Hanson, Teaching Assistant

Mike is a graduate student in mathematics at the University of Tennessee studying Number Theory. After graduating, he plans to continue his career in academia as a researcher in mathematics. Aside from math, Mike enjoys making and listening to music, drawing, and traveling. He is very excited to assist the Governor’s school math students while they learn about proofs, number theory and matrices.

Governor's School for the Sciences and Engineering
College of Arts & Sciences

Governor's Schools for the Sciences and Engineering
Department of Physics and Astronomy
401 Nielsen Physics Bldg.
Knoxville TN 37996-1200
Phone: 865-974-0756 Fax: 865-974-7843 Email: gsse@utk.edu

The flagship campus of the University of Tennessee System and partner in the Tennessee Transfer Pathway.